Saturday, 31 October 2015

Lithium Race: Samsung SDI Opens EV Battery Plant In China.



  InsideEVs reports about Samsung SDI new lithium battery plant in China. This is a very small factory with 1 GWh capacity compare to coming Megafactories from Boston Power with 10 GWh, where International Lithium strategic partner Ganfeng Lithium holds 10%; Foxconn with 15 GWh; BYD with 20 GWh and LG Chem with 7 GWh. On another side of the globe Tesla Motors is building its Gigafactory with Panasonic for 35 GWh capacity in Nevada. The trend in China shows what I have been discussing for a long time: state-level plan in action to build the new strategic industry - electric cars. Now lithium battery makers are coming where the demand will be - to the largest auto-market in the world. Elon Musk is talking about Tesla to built a factory in two years time in China. China controls 75% of Lithium Hydroxide supply, which goes into Tesla batteries and companies like Ganfeng Lithium are growing exponentially and scooping the globe for the best lithium projects to secure lithium supply for the this rEVolution. Below are few links to illustrate my thoughts.


Joe Lowry: The Lithium Market - What's Next?



Global Lithium.


  "Joe Lowry shares with us today another brilliant article about the state of Lithium Supply and Demand in the days when, finally ALL Auto-makers know that they cannot meet standards limiting toxic cancer hazard emissions. The ICE based technology just has reached its thermodynamic limits. Auto-makers not only know it, but they have admitted it in Europe this week in the most disgusting fashion by lobbying their dirty friends among politicians to DOUBLE toxic cancer hazard emissions from Diesel Cars and to delay their implementation.
  Electric Cars have reached The Point Of No Return. How many people will we save before The Silicon Valley economics will make all cars electric is up to all of us now. We need cheaper and better electric cars, we need mass market for EVs. We need volume. Where the lithium will be coming from to make it possible? Joe Lowry has his insider knowledge about it. We are just making it happen at International Lithium with our strategic partner Ganfeng Lithium $1.7 Billion market cap giant from China. 
  The future is electric and if you would like to know more this weekend, you can find links below and Joe will be your guide in his  "Opaque Kingdom of Lithium". Stay tuned as I will cut out a few tracks this weekend and maybe even some serious staff will be on our AC/DC digital waves soon. Read more."


"The Chinese Power Players – Tianqi and GanfengThe Chinese market is the largest in the lithium world and these two companies are the leaders in the Middle Kingdom which make them defacto “majors”. Tianqi owns 51% of Talison which solidifies their position as a major factor in the global upstream market. Ganfeng is the world’s largest lithium metal producer, a major supplier in the Asia downstream lithium market and increasingly important as a global upstream player. Joe Lowry."

China’s Ganfeng Reaches Out To International Lithium To Help Secure Their Supply Of The Green Technology Metal.


  "Joe Lowry has shared with us today his insider's view into "The Opaque Lithium Kingdom." He expects the demand for lithium to jump 88% in the next five years. You can check his latest thoughts about "a  full blown shortage situation" and Ganfeng's place among Lithium Majors now.  We are just making this rEVolution happen at International Lithium with our strategic partner Ganfeng Lithium $1.7 Billion market cap giant from China.  
  It is time to talk about the people behind the scenes of rEVolution, who are working very hard to  make the Green healthy future for your kids possible with the development of Clean Power and Lithium Technology at its foundation. Our CEO Gary Schellenberg has assembled unique and very deep technical team at ILC. You have already met our VP of Exploration John Harrop. Today is time for you to meet our COO Anthony Kovacs. He is running the development of all our projects on the three continents and now two of them have become J/Vs and financed by the giant from China Ganfeng Lithium, which is Strategic Partner of International Lithium and is holding 17.5% stake in ILC.
  Anthony has over 20 years experience in mineral exploration and development.  He began his career as a geophysicist conducting ground and airborne surveys and advancing computer modelling methods to visualise targets in 3D. He became a Project Geophysicist for Anglo American (Canada) where he specialised in nickel, copper and platinum group element deposits in numerous exploration projects around the world. Before joining ILC, Mr. Kovacs also held senior roles with Pacific North West Capital and Adriana Resources where he was Exploration Manager during the early development of the Lac Otelnuk Iron Project, Quebec (now in feasibility studies). He was also Managing Director of Vanadis Mines Oy, a subsidiary of Adriana Resources advancing the Mustavaara Vanadium Project in Finland, currently undergoing feasibility studies. Mr. Kovacs is a consultant to the minerals industry with significant community relations experience working on industrial minerals, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and precious metals projects throughout North America, Europe, South America and Africa.
  Now Anthony is running all our development programs with Ganfeng Lithium in Ireland and Argentina and with our VP of Exploration John Harrop preparing our Mavis Lake Lithium and Tantalum project for the new strategic partnership to take ILC to the next level. Today I will present his latest thoughts on geopolitical aspects of international cooperation in the development of supply for lithium - the green technology metal. Read more."



Ganfeng Increases Stake In Avalonia Lithium Project, Ireland And Finalizes Exploration Loan Agreement With International Lithium For Mariana Lithium Project, Argentina.



 "Mr. Kirill Klip, President, International Lithium Corp. comments, “The restructuring of our loan facilities with strategic partner Ganfeng Lithium provides ILC with financial relief and access to capital through the long term Exploration loan. In Argentina, all political candidates running in the upcoming elections are echoing the importance of mining and foreign investment to that country, something I view as very positive for our Mariana project. In Europe there is a growing concern that emissions standards are not being met with the clean diesel scandal paving the way for electric cars powered by lithium batteries. This gives our Avalonia project in Ireland strategic importance. Together with Ganfeng Lithium we continue to work towards supplying lithium as a raw material for clean power technologies in Europe and around the world.”






InsideEVs:



Samsung SDI opened a new lithium-ion battery cell plant in China calling itself the 1st global battery company to construct an EV battery plant in China.
The completion ceremony was held on October 22 at Xi’an, Shaanxi Province of China.
Battery production plan is for 40,000 EVs, which doesn’t tell us much about kWh per EV, but for sure it could be 0.5-1 GWh or more annually.
The new plant has been operational since September with around 200 employees. Total investment in phases will be $600 million, while the sales target is $1 billion by 2020.
“In order to acquire the dominance and leadership in Chinese EV market, Samsung SDI became the first global battery manufacturer to construct an EV battery plant and initiate mass production in China.
The Xi’an plant has initiated its operation from September. It has finalized battery supply agreements with 10 local personal and commercial vehicle companies and is already delivering the goods. Some of these companies include Yutong, the leader of China’s and also the world’s bus industry and then Foton, the leader of China’s truck industry.
The finalized Samsung SDI Xi’an Plant is a cutting-edge production line that can manufacture high-performance electric vehicle (in standard of pure EVs) batteries for an amount of approximately 40 thousand cars a year. The plant is capable of carrying out the whole production process of EV battery cells and modules. Preparing for increased market demand in the future, Samsung SDI will invest – by adding production line, etc. – 600 million USD into the Xi’an battery plant until 2020 and aim to achieve 1 billion USD in sales.”
Samsung SDI CEO Cho Nam Seong said in his welcoming address:
“Xi’an is a starting point of Silk Road and is also a focal point of China’s One Belt, One Road initiative.” He added, “To go hand in hand with China’s time-honored tradition and future development strategy, we will bring up Xi’an plant to become the world center of EV battery industry.”
Anqing Ring New Group Chairman Pan Yi Xin said:
“By integrating our expertise in the automotive business with Samsung SDI’s advanced technical capability, we will promote Xi’an Plant as the number one production base of EV battery.”
Samsung SDI's lithium-ion batteries
Samsung SDI’s lithium-ion batteries

Lithium Race: BMW i5 Crossover Rendered.



  This is a step in the right direction - another beautiful prototype from BMW. When will we see them on the streets? Hopefully this one will be full electric without any compromises. How Tesla managed to achieve such incredible performance in 13 short years and BMW with all its history and brilliant engineers is still catching up? This quote says it all:


“The new BMW i model will be larger than the BMW i3, that’s all I will say for now,” Krueger said. “We want to expand our e-mobility offering to accelerate the transition towards electric vehicles. Today, many buyers still decide against buying an electric car; demand is still low overall.


EU Corruption, DieselGate And Lithium Technology: How It's Made - BMWi i3 LifeDrive Architecture.



  "I would like to share with you this great video today. German auto-makers can do wonderful things too, not only cheating devices at Volkswagen. BMWi program is the very big step forward after billions have been wasted on Hydrogen and "'Clean Diesel." But can you imagine how much more brilliant engineers from BMW can do if corrupted politicians were not allowed to stop the progress like they did for 20 years in U.S.and this week in EU? Do you even know that EU governments have DOUBLED allowed toxic emissions limits for diesel and delayed their implementation this week? Lithium Technology is here - we have just to vote for it for real and push elected by us politicians to endorse it on our behalf and you have this power now. Just stop buying all that cancer hazard spitting air polluting rubbish any more. Watch the video."




  On a technical note, I do admire BMW LifeDrive architecture and new technologies in BMW i3. BMW must have a better battery and longer range. Cheaper battery can bring BMW i3 price down - it is still too expensive for urban commute electric car. Cheaper Lithium Batteries can come only with mass volume of production. Exactly like Elon Musk is doing with Tesla Gigafactory. Would you like to build yours? Welcome to Ireland! International Lithium with Ganfeng will get the lithium supply ready for your brave eDrive plans.
  BMW has to make something real in between BMW i3 and i8 just to stay relevant and be able to compete with Tesla Model S and Model X now and not in twenty years time. Now you can better realise how far Tesla is ahead.  BMW i8 has a beautiful body, but last century technology. Who needs Diesel Engine in "Electric Car" any more? Just look at Tesla again! 
  Dear BMW, please, just do it - just let your brilliant engineers made the best electric cars. Stop looking with half an eye on all your diesel monstrosity - "we have to sell them to". You could easily get Tesla Powertain for BMW i8 years ago if you were serious. Like Mercedes did, but where are all those beautiful EVs? The same goes to all your BMW i4, i5, i6 and i7. I guess with our EU corrupted puppets on the payroll of The Used To Be Great Autos who are protecting billions wasted in "Clean Diesel" Technology Elon Musk will get to the Mars sooner than you move for real in Electric Cars space. But people will not allow you to fool us any more. Dear Mercedes, BMW and VW, have a look at Volkswagen's loss last quoter and these couple of articles below. The time has come even for you to go electric!


Volkswagen DieselGate Fallout: Second Shock - Tesla Model S Takes On Mercedes S, Outsold BMW 7 And Audi 8.






  "This news will be shock for a lot of people. Electric cars made by Tesla are just better than comparable luxury brands. All this data is for the whole 2015 up to September. Volkswagen scam is not even reflected in consumer behaviour! Tesla Model S is taking on Mersedes S already, outselling Audi 8 and BMW 7 by a very big margins. Welcome to The Silicon Valley Economics. Now this trend will only accelerate.  To pay yourself to poison your kids with cancer hazard pollution is quite stupid after all. 
  Next step is to go for the mass market for electric cars, Tesla Model 3 will start it. The average price for a new car in U.S. was $23k in 2014. My magic formula is 20/200. $20k buys you BMW 2 type electric car with 200 miles range. Elon Musk will make it possible with dramatically reduced cost for Lithium Batteries to as low as $100 per kWh made at Tesla Gigafactory. If he will be able to commercialise Solid State Lithium Battery technology we are up for the real treat. Than Tesla Model S And X will go more than 500 miles on a charge very soon! Lithium is the magic metal at the very heart of this rEVolution. Read more."


Volkswagen And DieselGate: The Solution - Lithium Technology Is Here To Change Our World.




  "All major corporate crimes can be committed only when the masses are silent being busy digesting fast food with video games and Facebook "friends". Or deeper: when corporate slavery affects your own perspective from the cubicle so much that you think that it is Not Evil any more… 

 If somebody in Power does really want it, we have all technology and solutions available now. If somebody in Power was allowed by the Corporations who paid her ticket there - we have all the money to make it. Just take all costs of all Wars - yes, they all about Control of Energy and Oil means Energy to us even now. Add here all Trillions in tax breaks and subsidies provided to Fossil Fuel Industries. Nuclear will go here as well. Add all billions wasted on Hydrogen - it will be controlled by the same Old Big Oil, I will not even talk about the very low energy efficiency of full Energy cycle of Hydrogen To Wheel today. Add here all medical bills for cancer and other chemical pollution related deceases. It will be enough for a very good and fast start to the race into the post carbon world!
  Invest this money into Electric Cars, Solar and Wind. Put trucks on the Natural Gas first and Hybrids later. Move to the real Energy Security with distributed Solar and Wind power generation. Close all coal plants and nuclear as well. Use the Sun: Solar and Wind power costs are dropping like a stones now, why do we have to live still in the stone age in cages provided by Big Oil and Fossils? It was supposed to be over - the stone age, and not due to the lack of stones, we have the technology to make it without burning fossil fuels now. Read more"


DieselGate And Corruption: EU Governments Double And Delay Air Pollution Limits For Diesel Cars.

    

Erik Jonnaert, ACEA Secretary General


"Exhaust from diesel engines contributes to air pollution and is a cancer hazard to humans," said DrKurt StraifForbes.



  
  "EU governments have demonstrated today one more time that corruption is without borders and party limits. It is the very bad decision and totally diminish our politicians, who has lost today any credibility, to the status of corporate puppets on payroll. The only good news is that this act of treason on part of politicians against the public health just demonstrates that ICE technology just can't deliver any more, it has reached its limitations. Fossils are not only among fuels. Now you all will be sold even more polluting rubbish and our streets will be even more dangerous filled with cancer hazard toxic emissions. Your hard earned money will go to support those dirty politicians killing your kids. Just stop buying it and spread the word. Donate your RT. Read more."



Volkswagen, DieselGate And Now AutoGate: Car Emissions Testing - "The Whole System Is Corrupt"




"London smog: 'We spend billions per year on tests in a lab. Useless … We want to clean up the environment, not the labs' (Photo: stu mayhem)" - euobserver.


  No surprises, here for me unfortunately. Peter Teffer reports straight from the heart of "EU Capital" in Brussels:


"Volkswagen is not the only car company that used illegal devices to cheat emissions tests, said Axel Friedrich, a German emissions testing expert who is a co-founder of the NGO that notified US authorities something was wrong with VW's test results.
"You will see tomorrow night on German television the next case", Friedrich said on Wednesday (21 October) in the European Parliament.
"It's not only diesel, it's also gasoline. The whole system is corrupt", he added."



WHO: DieselGate Is A Cancer Problem - Auto Industry Calls "Not To Jeopardise Diesel As One Of Its Key Pillars."








BMWBLOG:

BMW i5 Crossover Rendered



In a recent interview, BMW CEO Harald Kr├╝ger confirmed the development of a new BMW i electric car. The model is likely to be called BMW i5 and the assumption is that it will be a crossover sedan with some design elements from the i3 and i5. A large battery pack in the underfloor ensures that the BMW i5 will sit somewhat higher than the i3, but not at the level of an SUV. “The new BMW i model will be larger than the BMW i3, that’s all I will say for now,” Krueger said. “We want to expand our e-mobility offering to accelerate the transition towards electric vehicles. Today, many buyers still decide against buying an electric car; demand is still low overall.”
Likely to arrive in 2017 or 2018, the BMW i5 has been rendered here by Theophilus Chin who used elements from the BMW i8 linked with the Nissan IDS Concept. While in no shape and form this is an indication where BMW is heading with the i5, the rendering offers some clues where the journey could go.
With the increased dimensions also comes a new side profile with a four-door layout and hatchback shape. The front fascia takes most of the cues from the i8 – sleek headlights, shark nose and oversized curtains. The large greenhouse also allows for more light inside the car and likely a better driving experience.
BMW plans to increase the range of the i3 in 2016 with a new battery pack – the range is likely to be go over 100 miles on electric power – so we believe a future i5 could make a significant jump in electric range to around 200 miles.
BMW is under pressure as rivals roll out new vehicles in attempt to beat the carmaker in annual sales. Tesla is also preparing two new exciting electric cars: an SUV, Model X, and a 3 Series competitor, Model 3 in 2017."

Friday, 30 October 2015

China’s Ganfeng Reaches Out To International Lithium To Help Secure Their Supply Of The Green Technology Metal.


  Joe Lowry has shared with us today his insider's view into "The Opaque Lithium Kingdom." He expects the demand for lithium to jump 88% in the next five years. You can check his latest thoughts about "a  full blown shortage situation" and Ganfeng's place among Lithium Majors now.  We are just making this rEVolution happen at International Lithium with our strategic partner Ganfeng Lithium $1.7 Billion market cap giant from China.  
  It is time to talk about the people behind the scenes of rEVolution, who are working very hard to  make the Green healthy future for your kids possible with the development of Clean Power and Lithium Technology at its foundation. Our CEO Gary Schellenberg has assembled unique and very deep technical team at ILC. You have already met our VP of Exploration John Harrop. Today is time for you to meet our COO Anthony Kovacs. He is running the development of all our projects on the three continents and now two of them have become J/Vs and financed by the giant from China Ganfeng Lithium, which is Strategic Partner of International Lithium and is holding 17.5% stake in ILC.
  Anthony has over 20 years experience in mineral exploration and development.  He began his career as a geophysicist conducting ground and airborne surveys and advancing computer modelling methods to visualise targets in 3D. He became a Project Geophysicist for Anglo American (Canada) where he specialised in nickel, copper and platinum group element deposits in numerous exploration projects around the world. Before joining ILC, Mr. Kovacs also held senior roles with Pacific North West Capital and Adriana Resources where he was Exploration Manager during the early development of the Lac Otelnuk Iron Project, Quebec (now in feasibility studies). He was also Managing Director of Vanadis Mines Oy, a subsidiary of Adriana Resources advancing the Mustavaara Vanadium Project in Finland, currently undergoing feasibility studies. Mr. Kovacs is a consultant to the minerals industry with significant community relations experience working on industrial minerals, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and precious metals projects throughout North America, Europe, South America and Africa.
  Now Anthony is running all our development programs with Ganfeng Lithium in Ireland and Argentina and with our VP of Exploration John Harrop preparing our Mavis Lake Lithium and Tantalum project for the new strategic partnership to take ILC to the next level. Today I will present his latest thoughts on geopolitical aspects of international cooperation in the development of supply for lithium - the green technology metal.


Anthony Kovacs

Mr. Kovacs has over 18 years of experience in mineral exploration and development. Before joining ILC he held senior management roles at Pacific North West Capital Corp. and Adriana Resources Inc. Mr. Kovacs is a consultant to the minerals industry having prior experience on industrial minerals, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and precious metals projects throughout Canada, Europe, Mexico and Africa.



International Lithium Corp. - A Green-Energy Metals Company.




  "I have written extensively about International Lithium and our strategic partner Ganfeng Lithium. Our J/Vs in Argentina and Ireland are financed by this giant from China and we have very important access to the technology. Basically we are building the secure supply chain for Ganfeng Lithium using their expertise in raw materials needed for production of battery grade lithium from the very beginning. Our brine bulk sample from Mariana is being tested at Ganfeng state-of-the-art R&D facilities in China and in Ireland we have identified 22 exploration targets. Now, according to our latest NR, we are waiting for the approval of the budgets for both projects to be rapidly advanced after very encouraging results were received from the last exploration stage this year.
   Today I would like to show you another side of International Lithium. We have the very strong technical team headed by our CEO Gary Schellenberg. Anthony Kovacs - our COO and John Harrop - our VP of Exploration are among very few top level exploration managers and geologists in lithium sector. This Team depth has allowed International lithium to attract Ganfeng and strike two major J/V deals in all our industry. These days we are getting the first fruits of this very hard work. Coming volume shows that market is waking up and we are receiving at least some recognition of the value we have been building all these years. 
  I am talking a lot about the security of lithium supply and Tesla Lithium Hydroxide Supply Deal is another proof and was noticed by market overnight. Now venture capital is knocking on all doors chasing the upstream supply chain for electric cars and Energy rEVolution. 
  We have another great project at International Lithium: Mavis Lake Lithium And Tantalum Project which is located in mining friendly Canada in the area with excellent infrastructure and very encouraging initial exploration results with high grade Lithium and Tantalum. It will be our next strategic advance for the company. With J/Vs moving forward we are looking for the strong Strategic Partner to develop this project for the potential supply of this strategic commodity for the ongoing Next Industrial rEVolution. West will wake up one day to the fact that China has managed to control now not only over 90% of REE production, but 75% of Battery Grade Lithium Hydroxide as well. 
  Security of Supply means exactly this - Security. When the price is taking the second consideration and availability of critical materials is taking the central stage. My personal mission is to make this Security happen for the Western world for real as well, even if this part of the World still lives by HFT rules and Q by Q performance reflecting the coming bonuses. Our Asian friends are beating us all here with the state-level plans looking for The Next Fifty Years and building new strategic industries like Electric Cars in China.
  We have Elon Musk, we need more like him, but it is a very good start. Our strategic partner for Mavis Lake is waiting somewhere in between of latest Q performance reviews. If you know the one - you know whom to call. Now I do not have really to explain any more What Is Lithium For - Elon Musk has made the great job and every single Tesla Model S is the best moving ad of the things to come. All cars will be electric and it will be very soon. And by the way any new hard rock mine for Lithium will take 5-7 years to build Lithium brine operations will take 4-5 years at best. 
  Why International Lithium? You can check presentation above. Read more."


International Lithium: Mavis Lake Lithium And Tantalum Project, Canada.



  


  With lithium in the headlines these days I would like to present International Lithium's  Mavis Lake Lithium and Tantalum project in Canada. Our J/V projects with Ganfeng Lithium: Avalonia in Ireland and Mariana in Argentina - are better known, but Mavis Lake presents another very important opportunity for advance of potential source of conflict free strategic commodities in politically stable Canada.

  



Ganfeng Increases Stake In Avalonia Lithium Project, Ireland And Finalizes Exploration Loan Agreement With International Lithium For Mariana Lithium Project, Argentina.



 "Mr. Kirill Klip, President, International Lithium Corp. comments, “The restructuring of our loan facilities with strategic partner Ganfeng Lithium provides ILC with financial relief and access to capital through the long term Exploration loan. In Argentina, all political candidates running in the upcoming elections are echoing the importance of mining and foreign investment to that country, something I view as very positive for our Mariana project. In Europe there is a growing concern that emissions standards are not being met with the clean diesel scandal paving the way for electric cars powered by lithium batteries. This gives our Avalonia project in Ireland strategic importance. Together with Ganfeng Lithium we continue to work towards supplying lithium as a raw material for clean power technologies in Europe and around the world.”







China’s Ganfeng Reaches Out To International Lithium To help Secure Their Supply Of The Green Technology Metal.




Anthony Kovacs

COO
International Lithium Corp.

I am part of a small group of geoscientists that traditionally search the globe for rich mineral resources like copper, gold, nickel and zinc. Now we find ourselves at the forefront of what could be termed a green energy revolution and look to mine lithium.

Lithium is a vital ingredient in rechargeable batteries that power everything from cell phones to electrical grids, but its use is soon to find explosive growth in the electric and hybrid electric vehicle markets.

International Lithium Corp., (ILC) a venture capital corporation or “junior miner”, is developing lithium projects on three continents.






As Chief Operations Officer at ILC I would like to share some of the unique challenges faced by our company that is trying to develop two different types of lithium deposits on different continents with a partner that is not a mining company, but a lithium product manufacturer from China.

As a mineral exploration group with seasoned geoscientists we are accustomed to working in rugged terrain, foreign lands and in a multitude of languages and cultures. Cultural adaptation is challenging, especially if you have no working knowledge of the local language, but it is one of the more pleasurable and fascinating aspects of our work. Our interaction with locals can be limited, limiting our ability to learn and assimilate the local culture. To make matters worse our work sites are usually located in remote areas and our principle contacts might be geoscientists from a distant part of that country, leaving us with hybrid knowledge of the local culture.

Our partnership with Ganfeng Lithium has brought new operational challenges forcing us to develop new expertise. It is one thing to go to a foreign country, not understand a foreign language and expect to find your way around in the bush. But it is a whole new experience merging ideas of vastly different corporate cultures and educating a product manufacturing company to the Wild West style of grass roots mineral exploration.





The one thing that keeps coming back to me is that we have the same goals. Our success is their success and vice versa. This commonality helps us get through some of the more subtle yet important issues that may get lost in translation. Getting our feet on the ground together helps us to recognise there is a human on the other side of that confusing message in my inbox. And it is more important to understand the concerns our partner has when it comes to extracting, refining and transporting the raw material than making a big discovery as would be the case for junior exploration companies on the hunt for gold or copper.






I believe that the threat to the future supply of lithium due to increased demand from the energy storage industries is not necessarily based on scarcity of the metal but rather on what partnerships manufacturers and mining exploration companies can forge, combined with the geo-political location of their deposits. For International Lithium, we were able to choose projects in countries with a good reputation for being mining friendly and socially and environmentally conscience at the same time recognising that the projects are in a favourable location for easy access to transportation and developmental infrastructure. This could be one reason why our partner sought to get involved in these projects. Another could be that we have demonstrated our ability to work in foreign lands, in harsh conditions with a foreign partner. Regardless of the reasons, the future of clean transportation and energy storage is dependent on lithium, among other critical elements, and ILC will be there to help our current and future partners in their search.